In Business Since 2001 We accept Paypal
Home for Writers for Publishers Article Directory Article Search
Guides
Article Marketing Secrets
20-Min Article Writing
Author Resource Box
35 Traffic Strategies
Kindle Uploads 101
Fantastic Fiction Decoded


Click Here to
see on Amazon


Site Navigation
Home

Writing Services
+ FAQ

FAQ

+ About Us
+ Blogs
Search Tools
+ Search Our Articles
Article Directory
+ Authors
+ Articles
Other Sites We Own
Writing Puzzle

Professional Book Marketing

Platt Publishing

Marketing Help


 
Article Teaser: Dr. Lorne Tyrrell pioneered lamivudine as the standard treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Now a success, he observed the drug's shortcomings. Now CEO of ViRexx Medical, Tyrrell hopes his latest development, Chimigen, will offer new hope for HBV, other infectious diseases, and cancer.

Keep reading below...

Will Linked Recognition Lead to a Cancer Vaccine?

Copyright (c) 2006-2017 StockInterview.com
Written by:
(See This Article in its Original Format.)

A SCIENTIST'S 20-YEAR UNFINISHED JOURNEY TO TREAT HBV MAY OPEN THE DOOR TO A NEW CLASS OF FLEXIBLE VACCINES

While preparing a lecture in biochemistry and virology for his graduate students at the University of Alberta in the early 1980s, Dr. Lorne Tyrrell ran across a study just published in the medical journal, Cell. The research by William Mason and Jesse Summers, entitled "Replication of Hepatitis B," discussed their study of the hepatitis B virus in infected duck liver.

After studying their duck model theory, Tyrrell speculated if the hepatitis B virus (HBV) might be susceptible to antiviral agents, and consulted with a colleague, who specialized in nucleoside chemistry. Both medical professors became excited about the possibility of inhibiting the HBV virus with nucleoside analogues. Thus began the infectious disease specialist's first leg of a journey, which led to the use of lamivudine as a therapy for chronic HBV infections.

More than 350 million people across the world, especially in Asia, now had new hope, some for their lifelong infections contracted vertically at birth from their mothers. In 2003, the Center for Disease Control estimated 73,000 Americans were infected with HBV, and about 5,000 die each year from sickness caused by HBV. It is reportedly 100 times more contagious than the AIDS virus. Many in North America, who had been infected with the virus from sexual transmission or intravenous drug use, were offered a potentially life-saving therapy.

Licensed in 1998, lamivudine is now used in 120 countries as a standard therapy for chronic HBV carriers. The compound is also used in combination with other drugs, such as protease inhibitors, for HIV therapy. Development rights were licensed to Glaxo Wellcome in 1990, which is now sold under the brand name Epivir®. For his pioneering efforts in developing the antiviral agent, Dr. Tyrrell was awarded the gold medal by the Canadian Liver Foundation and the Canadian Association for the Study of Liver in 2000. In 2005, he won the prestigious EnCana Principal Award for his development of the first effective oral medication for Hepatitis B.


HIS UNANSWERED QUESTIONS LAUNCHED A NEW HBV INVESTIGATION

Despite the awards and recognition, questions remained for Dr. Tyrrell about the shortcomings of lamivudine. He was troubled that some viruses would develop resistance to the compound. "I was disappointed the sustained viral response was not complete," Tyrrell told us. In April 2003, the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy published a study in Japan showing, "long-term (lamivudine) therapy is associated with increased emergence of lamivudine-resistant strains of HBV." Researchers concluded in this study, "The therapeutic challenge to effectively treat chronic HBV infection continues."

Having screened lamivudine for use in Hepatitis B at Glaxo's research lab at the University of Alberta, Dr. Tyrrell was able to observe the immune response of various HBV patients. "What really got me interested in doing more work in this area was that we noticed patients, who have an immune response to the virus and take lamivudine, will have a better sustained response rate," Tyrrell explained. "A patient with elevated liver transaminases taking lamivudine had a higher probability of a sustained viral response," Tyrrell said with excitement in his voice. "In a patient with normal liver enzymes, who gets lamivudine, the virus will go down, but as soon as you stop the therapy, the virus comes right back up." He told us the sustained viral response is only about two to three percent. Only about 30 percent remain free of the virus, about one year after patients have stopped taking lamivudine.

"How do you break tolerance?" Tyrrell asked himself, hoping to develop a way to stimulate an immune response. All of the patients, he had observed, seemed to be tolerant of the hepatitis B virus. He pondered the dilemma, "Was there some way to break tolerance to hepatitis B by stimulating the immune response?" Tyrrell studied what others were attempting and wasn't satisfied with the approaches others were taking to stimulate immune response. His ViRexx Medical research team brainstormed about different ways to target the antigen into the dendritic cells.

"That's where we came in with the Chimigen™ technology," Tyrrell said. "The dendritic cells have receptors on their surface that will bind the Fc portion of an antibody." He pointed out a key feature of the Chimigen™ platform, "We used the Fc portion of a murine (mouse) antibody to hook onto our hepatitis B antigens. This would direct the viral antigens into dendritic cells in vivo." Because the dendritic cells are the sentries of the immune system, they guard what comes in. Recognizing a 'foreign situation' in the murine antibody, it treats the whole molecule including the virus antigen as foreign.


LINK RECOGNITION MAY HOLD THE KEY

Dr. Rajan George, ViRexx Medical's vice president of research and development, told us, "The dendritic cells chop up this protein into small pieces called peptides, also known as epitopes. The dendritic cells have a system where they put the T-cell epitope on another protein, MHC Class I, and bring it to the surface of the dendritic cell. They are presented as a complex on the surface of the dendritic cell to attract the T-cells." When the T-cells arrive to inspect the foreign entity, the cytotoxic T-cells are activated. Then, they begin attacking and killing the virus-infected cells.

Research at Tokyo's Cancer Institute Hospital, published in 1987 in Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi, suggested a feasibility of linked recognition of a virus antigen as a helper in tumor immunity with a target antigen. In the case of ViRexx Medical, Tyrrell's team has created a new molecule, called "chimigen." The term is shorthand for a chimeric antigen, meaning it is an antigen created from two different sources, part virus and part murine monoclonal antibody.

Dr. Tyrrell's work at ViRexx Medical with Dr. George suggested the linked-recognition theory might be the key to breaking tolerance. Dr. George emphasized, "The new 'chimigen' stimulates an immune response to the antigen as well as the viral antigen. This is very important because the virus antigen was previously being ignored." That brings us back to why lamivudine had limited success. The immune systems of some HBV carriers failed to recognize the viral infection as a threat to the body. Tyrell's ViRexx Medical research team hopes the body's immune system sees the threat, thus stimulating the immune system, and breaking tolerance. It appears Dr. Tyrell may soon find out whether or not the questions he asked will bring the answers he hoped for.

END OF PART ONE



About The Author: Shop Amazon - Top Gift Ideas
To read Part 2 of this interview, please visit http://www.stockinterview.com
James Finch contributes to StockInterview.com and other publications. Write to James Finch at: jfinch@stockinterview.com

Follow "The Phantom Writers" on Twitter (@phantomwriters)
to be notified when new articles are made available.


VOTE ON THIS ARTICLE
Needs Work >> 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 << Excellent Article

Tell our authors what you think about their article.



Top-Level Category: Finance Articles || Related Categories: Health and Wellness Articles

10 Most Recent Articles Written by James Finch

Cohen Research Report Bullish on Pacific Asia China Energy
Written by: James Finch | Distributed: 2006-06-21 | Word Count: 867 | Page Views: 2084 | Votes: 10 | Rating: 2.70
We reviewed a research firm's report on a coalbed methane company. Cohen Independent Research Group issued a Buy recommendation on the shares of Pacific Asia China Energy (TSX: PCE), calling those shares "grossly undervalued." Why is it undervalued?

Safest Ways to Invest in Uranium Companies
Written by: James Finch | Distributed: 2006-04-27 | Word Count: 0 | Page Views: 814
Because of soaring uranium prices, hundreds of companies have formed to capitalize upon the latest craze. How do you avoid being fooled? Look to ISL uranium companies. About 21 percent of the world's nuclear reactors are now fueled by uranium mined using this method. How do you evaluate the many uranium companies now developing their ISL operations?

All of Author's Articles on this site:

Most Recent "Finance" Articles

Credit Card Companies Reward Consumers Who Shop Around
Written by: Braxton Heitz | Distributed: 2012-11-20 | Word Count: 1159 | Page Views: 4387 | Votes: 13 | Rating: 2.00
With Ronald Reagan came mass deregulation in many industries. One of the industries that benefited from deregulation was the financial industry. As a result, hundreds of new financial companies were introduced to the American consumer during the 1980's. With the sudden explosion of new competitors in this industry, credit card companies began to struggle with how to retain existing customers and to recruit new customers.

What My Mother Taught Me About Credit Cards And Family Finances
Written by: Braxton Heitz | Distributed: 2012-11-12 | Word Count: 1285 | Page Views: 4096 | Votes: 23 | Rating: 2.52
My mother is an amazing woman. She made some of the hardest jobs imaginable look easy. No matter how hard her day was, she always had a smile and perfect hair.

Understanding Your 401(k), IRA and Other Pre-Tax Investments
Written by: Irene A. Majchrzak | Distributed: 2010-08-03 | Word Count: 1005 | Page Views: 3120
What does all of the bad economic news mean to you, the average investor. Well, if you are still working and contributing to your pre-tax 401(k)'s, 403(b)'s, or IRA savings your strategies for salvaging your retirement will include reviewing all of the investment options found in your 401(k), etc.

Xerox Follow Apple on the Comeback Trail
Written by: Jennifer Robinson | Distributed: 2010-07-27 | Word Count: 1238 | Page Views: 3754 | Votes: 3 | Rating: 0.00
In many ways the companies share similar fortunes. Apple (founded by Steve Jobs, Stephen Wozniak, Ronald Wayne) produced the first successful personal computer with a graphical operating system. Xerox (founded by Chester Carlson, Joseph C Wilson) were the inventors of Xerography (later called the photocopier).

Payday Advance Loans Are Now Only One Toll Free Call Away
Written by: Tom Tierney | Distributed: 2010-07-27 | Word Count: 599 | Page Views: 2446
A friend of mine recently went through financial troubles and asked me, knowing that I'm a finance writer, if I could push him in the right direction for a short term loan to help out with his expenses. Here's his story:

Stock Market Falls Sharply
Written by: Irene A. Majchrzak | Distributed: 2010-07-27 | Word Count: 879 | Page Views: 2772 | Votes: 4 | Rating: 1.00
The stock market has been having a bad week. Wednesday the market ended the day down over 300 points. I heard reports that this was the result of investors taking their profits. Happens all the time. Then within a few days, the prices on many great stocks is so low that the investors are buying the stocks right back up.

Finding the Best Credit Card Applications
Written by: Jeffrey Weber | Distributed: 2010-07-27 | Word Count: 403 | Page Views: 2138
Online credit card applications can be confusing. That's the way the banks want them. This article will help eliminate some of the confusion.

Do You Know the Difference Between an Investment Advisor and a Broker?
Written by: Tome Tomaj | Distributed: 2010-03-11 | Word Count: 408 | Page Views: 2755 | Votes: 4 | Rating: 4.25
As an fee-only investment advisor I come across clients from all walks of life. Lately I have noticed something in common with many of these investors. Many do not know the difference between an investment advisor and a broker who manages and/or makes securities recommendations for their clients' investment portfolios. With the almost unprecedented volatility in the securities markets, you cannot afford to dig your head in the sand when it comes to whom is managing your assets.

Understanding Term Life Insurance and Getting Quotes
Written by: Brian Greenberg | Distributed: 2010-01-13 | Word Count: 520 | Page Views: 2523 | Votes: 1 | Rating: 2.00
Buying term life insurance can be a scary process but understanding the different types of life insurance can remove the fear. What you should know about term life and how requesting life insurance quotes online can be easy and very convenient.

The Decline in the Personal Savings Rate - What Happened to the Discipline?
Written by: Tome Tomaj | Distributed: 2009-12-15 | Word Count: 873 | Page Views: 3249 | Votes: 4 | Rating: 1.75
As more and more American baby boomers are nearing and entering their retirement years, many of them are concerned about whether their retirement savings will last them long enough to ensure their current quality of life, and rightly so.

Most Viewed "Finance" Articles

A Better Way To Sell A Structured Settlement - Via Auction
Written by: Clayton Frantz | Distributed: 2007-11-30 | Word Count: 1342 | Page Views: 10188 | Votes: 10 | Rating: 2.20
Structured settlements were introduced in Canada and the United States in the 1970's. They were introduced as an alternative to lump sum payments, common in insurance settlements and lottery winnings. In the decades since, they have also been accepted as legal financial instruments in England and Australia. In a nutshell, a structured settlement by legal definition is a statutory agreement to pay a specified sum of money over a period of time, on a payment system.

Using a 401K Loan to Stop Foreclosure
Written by: Daniel Lamaute | Distributed: 2008-02-11 | Word Count: 465 | Page Views: 8797 | Votes: 17 | Rating: 1.94
A bankruptcy or foreclosure can cripple one's ability to obtain decent credit for many years. In addition, some employers and landlords won't hire or rent to a candidate with terrible credit history. Thus, it is a good idea to discuss all options with a financial planner before ending in bankruptcy or foreclosure.

What Does Short, Long, Flat And Square Mean In Forex Trading?
Written by: Sam Beatson | Distributed: 2006-10-11 | Word Count: 525 | Page Views: 6746 | Votes: 20 | Rating: 2.90
Short, long, square and flat explained in terms of forex trading (Spot FX).

Why Over 3,000 US Companies Have Chosen the Frankfurt Stock Exchange to Go Public
Written by: Ron Crowe | Distributed: 2008-07-31 | Word Count: 786 | Page Views: 6407 | Votes: 16 | Rating: 2.00
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest trading centers for securities, has over 3,000 United States companies listed. North American and other foreign companies are choosing Europe, over the United States, to go public because of the punishing Sarbanes Oxley Act introduced in the United States in 2002.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Individual and Group Health Insurance
Written by: Kevin Kielty | Distributed: 2009-04-01 | Word Count: 639 | Page Views: 5722 | Votes: 12 | Rating: 2.25
The cost of individual and group health insurance coverage varies greatly as does the type of coverage they both offer. Making the switch can bring some surprises.

How to Hide Assets
Written by: Rocco Beatrice | Distributed: 2007-01-19 | Word Count: 507 | Page Views: 5513 | Votes: 10 | Rating: 1.20
How to hide your assets by repositioning your assets through an irrevocable trust with an independent trustee.

How to Avoid Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)
Written by: Jim Cramer | Distributed: 2008-02-20 | Word Count: 523 | Page Views: 4787 | Votes: 6 | Rating: 2.50
There is more than one way to get your desired home without having the 20 percent down payment and avoid PMI at the same time.

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Why Your Broker May Not Be Recommending The Most Competitive Annuity
Written by: Tom Hamlin | Distributed: 2006-05-12 | Word Count: 1036 | Page Views: 4601 | Votes: 10 | Rating: 2.90
There are over two thousand life insurance companies offering over fifteen thousand different annuities, and they run the gamut from horrific (I wouldn't offer it to an enemy) to outstanding...

The Effect of Inflation and Deflation on Retirees
Written by: Irene A. Majchrzak | Distributed: 2009-10-27 | Word Count: 1324 | Page Views: 4516 | Votes: 5 | Rating: 1.00
When we worry about how long our retirement income will last, we consider so many factors. The current economy is causing a drain on 401(k)'s and IRA's. So we have become much more cautious about withdrawing money to use it as part of our pensions.

9 Questions To Answer Before You Prepay Your Home Mortgage
Written by: Frank Oakerson | Distributed: 2006-08-02 | Word Count: 1257 | Page Views: 4433 | Votes: 15 | Rating: 1.93
We are all different. At different times in our lives we have different goals and needs. You can ask different experts in financial planning, Texas mortgage brokers, and your banker "should I prepay on my home mortgage?" and you will get answers from "that is the greatest idea" to "that will be the worst financial mistake you will ever make". So what is a person to do? Let us look at 9 things you need to consider and have answered before you "prepay your home mortgage".

Highest Ranked "Finance" Articles

Identity Theft: The New Threat to Your Credit
Written by: Josh Pike | Distributed: 2006-08-24 | Word Count: 363 | Page Views: 3510 | Votes: 8 | Rating: 4.00
When we think of thieves, images of burglars creeping into homes and apartments come to mind. However, there are new thieves that can take much more than your money or possessions. If your personal information falls into the hands of an identity thief, your credit and finances can be ruined.

In Fear of Retirement
Written by: Daniel Lamaute | Distributed: 2008-05-08 | Word Count: 646 | Page Views: 2777 | Votes: 7 | Rating: 3.86
Many baby boomers are staring at retirement like a deer caught on oncoming headlights. They are not sure what to do or what else to do. They fear that whatever they have in savings just might not be enough. Less than 1 out of 5 workers felt very confident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement, according to the April 2008, EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey. And with good reasons, inflation is zooming at the same time that asset values are flagging.

A Recipe for Good Credit
Written by: Josh Pike | Distributed: 2006-08-17 | Word Count: 369 | Page Views: 2411 | Votes: 7 | Rating: 3.57
If your credit is not as good as you want it to be, take action now! It's easier than you think to improve your credit.

Equipment Financing and The Five Cs of Credit Evaluation
Written by: Sean Marten | Distributed: 2007-10-17 | Word Count: 698 | Page Views: 2912 | Votes: 6 | Rating: 3.50
Equipment financing lenders, as well as banks, use the Five Cs to evaluate loan applications: Character, Credit, Cash Flow, Capacity and Collateral. However, while banks look at small-to-medium size companies from a Fortune 500 perspective, equipment financing companies see applicants from a small business perspective, which highlights a sixth C: Common Sense.

Reverse Mortgage Costs Are Not Too High
Written by: N. Sioris | Distributed: 2008-07-29 | Word Count: 1120 | Page Views: 2625 | Votes: 6 | Rating: 3.50
Reverse mortgage costs are repeatedly cited as one of the main reasons for seniors not to get a reverse mortgage loan. However, the same folks that harp on costs as being a reason not to use this financial resource rarely offer a less expensive option or an alternate proposal. Don't fall into the trap of listening to the negative hype without doing your own research. Find out what the true costs are and whether they are justified or not. Compare the cost of a reverse mortgage to the cost of selling your home, downsizing or moving into assisted living. Pull back the curtain and take a good look, then make your own determination. Don't base your decision on an uninformed friend, relative or media reporter.

Medicaid Asset Protection
Written by: Rocco Beatrice | Distributed: 2007-01-23 | Word Count: 646 | Page Views: 3067 | Votes: 7 | Rating: 3.43
Learn how to include senior Medicaid asset protection as part of your senior tax planning strategies. What are the tax implications of Medicaid and why it needs to be planned carefully? About seniors Medicaid asset protection as part of the senior tax planning strategies. Explains the new 5-year look back provisions for seniors to qualify for Medicare assistance into nursing home program.

How to Invest in a Rough Economy: Investment Advice from the Experts
Written by: Sarah Simmons | Distributed: 2009-07-08 | Word Count: 692 | Page Views: 2278 | Votes: 8 | Rating: 3.38
The stock market crash of 2008 lost many investors a lot of money, and had many other investors bailing out of stocks for the safety of savings and checking accounts, treasury bills and gold. However, it is still possible to invest - and yes, even make money - during the current rocky economy.

Section 179 - 4th Qtr Tax Saving Strategy for Small Business
Written by: Sean Marten | Distributed: 2007-12-05 | Word Count: 345 | Page Views: 3774 | Votes: 6 | Rating: 3.33
Use the power of available deductions to boost your business's bottom line in 2007. Purchase new or "new to you" used business equipment now. Then place it in service by December 31st to realize exceptional tax savings.

Why You Should Buy a Home Now
Written by: Clint Wooley | Distributed: 2007-01-09 | Word Count: 588 | Page Views: 2458 | Votes: 9 | Rating: 3.22
These days there is literally too much information for first time homebuyers to make a decision sometimes. Fear can prevent first time home buyers from ever acting on their dream of home ownership. When you look at facts, though, buying a home makes as much sense now as it ever has.

Payday Loans - Convenience and Danger
Written by: Fred Vanhoosen | Distributed: 2008-12-08 | Word Count: 1027 | Page Views: 2432 | Votes: 6 | Rating: 3.17
Payday / Cash Advance Loans are a godsend for those consumers who truly have a temporary short-term cash need, but what is a blessing for one consumer can easily be a nightmare in the offing for another consumer whose financial needs are more dire and long-term in nature. Get the facts before you select this kind of loan product.












Download an eBook today
 
Directory Navigation
Locate By Author

Locate By Category:
ALL Categories
Arts & Crafts
Arts & Entertainment
Automotive
Business - Offline
Business - Online
Career
Computers
Education
Family
Finance
Food & Drink
Health & Wellness
Home & Garden
Humor
Internet
Nature & Pets
Real Estate
Religion
Self Improvement
Shopping
Society
Sports & Recreation
Technology
Travel & Leisure
Uncategorized
World Events
Writing & Speaking

Change Number of Results:
50 - 100 - 200 - 500
Article Reprint Rights
Creative Commons License

This work is
licensed under a
Creative Commons
License


You are not required to show the creative commons license notice when you reprint this work.
Article Publishing Tools
Print Article
Email-to-Blog
HTML Source Code
Text Newsletter Format
Link Back HTML

Blog Publishing Tools

Internal ID: #2905
Article Statistics
Word Count: 1080

Total Views: 2275

Article Rating: 1.86 of 5
Votes Cast: 7

More Articles By Author:




Article Title Search:

Widow Search
Right Blinker
Google
Yahoo!
Zuula
Bing
Cuil

Last Distribution Date:
2006-06-01 11:24:00






All Articles are Copyright © 2001-2017 of the Defined Authors.

All other material and images on this site are:
Copyright © 2001-2017, ThePhantomWriters.com